Annotated Bibliography of the Asimina Triloba (Paw Paw)

Created by Rachael L. Boyce

Hormaza, Jose I. “The Pawpaw, a Forgotten North American Fruit Tree.” Arnoldia, July 2014, 14–23,

In this article, Jose Hormaza, a Professor at the La Mayora Research Institute of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research, paints a broad picture of the pawpaw by discussing the history, origins, and characteristics of the North American fruit. Something that really stands out in this article is the historic drawings of the pawpaw from the eighteen-hundreds depicting the fruits intricate make-up. In addition, the article cites over thirty credible sources, some of which include historical journals, that allow for further investigation of specific topics. Written for the everyday American this article seeks to inform citizens of the importance and uniqueness of one of the few tree fruits indigenous to North America. This source is a good starting place for a broad overview of the pawpaw.

Ames, Guy K. “Pawpaw - A ‘Tropical’ Fruit for Temperate Climates .” Small Farm Quarterly, 2018,

This article in Cornell’s Small Farms Quarterly magazine offers information involving the best ways to approach growing and selling pawpaws. The environmental conditions and location necessary for the plant to successfully grow are mentioned along with the process of planting, propagating, pollinating, pest preventing, harvesting, handling, and marketing. The author, Guy Ames, is an orchardist and tree fruit specialist with the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service and wrote this article is for those interested in the conditions and hard work necessary to successfully grow and harvest pawpaws. Furthermore, this source is a good reference when looking into how to raise pawpaw patches, specifically, in the first few years.

Jones, Snake C, and Desmond R Layne. Cooking with Pawpaws. Cooperative Extension Program, 15Jan. 2009, Publications.

This publication by Kentucky State University explains the composition and nutritional benefits of the pawpaw. Readers who are curious about the distinct taste of the pawpaw and how to cook or utilize the pulp of the fruit will find this publication useful. Kentucky State University has the largest pawpaw breeding program in the world and has extremely reliable information concerning the North American fruit. These practical uses for the fruit’s frozen pulp are important to know since the shelf life of the fresh fruit is so short. Pie, custard, cookie, and cake recipes are just some of the many recipes included in the publication.

Foster, Steven, and James A Duke. Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America. Third ed., Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company , 2014.

Peterson’s Field Guide includes write-ups of hundreds of North American medicinal plants and herbs. Both the ways the plants had been used as treatments and ways they are being used as treatment are included, and the short description of the botanical characteristics of the plant that comes before the uses allows the reader to correctly identify plant in a field. Both authors have over forty years of experience in the herbal field making it one of the best selling field guides of all time. Furthermore, this book includes the Asimina Trilobaand gives insight into the many ways it has been utilized as a medicinal plant. For example, the powdered seeds can be applied to the scalp to prevent lice while the oil from the leaves can be used to treat abscesses. 

Mellichamp, Larry. Native Plants of the Southeast. Timber Press, 2014.

In this comprehensive guide to the best 460 species for the garden, Larry Mellichamp proposes that homes in the southeast utilize the beautiful native plants of their region in their own backyards. With the inclusion of vivid descriptions, photos, and practical cultivation tips readers can be inspired to confidently install them in their own lawns. Larry Mellichamp recognizes the pawpaw in his guide and specifically highlights the benefit of planting them in the sun and the tropical features of the small tree. The author’s lifelong experience with gardening, specifically botanical gardening in the south, makes this book worth-the-while and unique because it caters more towards homeowners and gardeners rather than just farmers.

Marzolo, Gina. “Pawpaw.” Agricultural Marketing Resource Center , The US Department of Agriculture , Jan. 2016,

This article written by Gina Manzolo, a graduate student of agricultural sciences at California State Polytechnic University, gives insight on the different market channels of the pawpaw. In addition, pawpaw prices, costs of production, and marketing tactics are discussed, giving the reader an idea of what the potential profits of a pawpaw patch could be with the use of different selling techniques. Currently the primary market for the pawpaw is local farmer markets and the author stresses the importance of properly differentiating the fruit from the papaya, as people commonly confuse the two. This article expounds on what Guy Ames wrote in “Pawpaw – a ‘tropical’ Fruit for Temperate Climates” by presenting more ways to distribute and sell the fruit. Furthermore, its a good guide to the pawpaw market and how to navigate it.

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